What is the meaning of agriculture?
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture is the key to the development of human civilization. Agriculture obtains food resources for the growth and life of humans and living organisms by domesticating and selecting various plant and animal species.
The origins of agriculture date back to 105 thousand years ago, and the first farmers began to cultivate about 11,500 years ago. Different animals like sheep, goats, cows, and birds were domesticated for about 10 thousand years. Plants were grown in 11 regions around the globe.
The genesis of Industrial agriculture:
Industrial or modern agriculture is a large-scale, mostly single-product crop that began to grow in the twentieth century thus, small-scale farming (with a variety of crops) was performed by many farmers around the world to obtain food for themselves and their families.
New agriculture, plant genetic modification, and chemical agriculture mean the use of fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture are indicators of modern agriculture. Using technology in agriculture has highly increased yields while causing environmental damage.
Plant breeding, new manipulations, and new livestock measures have led to a considerable increase in meat and milk production, but these advanced measures have caused damage to the environment and raised concerns about animal rights. Environmental problems such as global warming, depletion of groundwater resources, deforestation, resistance to antibiotics, growth hormones in industrially produced meats. Genetically modified organisms were highly applied, although they are banned in some countries.
How are agricultural products classified?
Agricultural products are classified into various categories like:
- food products
- raw materials (such as lattice)
Agricultural food products are divided into:
- cereals (grains)
What is the concept of sustainable agriculture?
Around the world, more than a third of the country’s workforce is applied in agriculture and then services. Thus, in developed countries, the labor force in the agricultural sector has reduced due to the development of industry and technology. Intensive agriculture expanded from the twentieth century.
In this kind of agriculture, synthetic fertilizers and different pesticides were applied which has caused the contamination of groundwater. In recent years, there were many protests against agriculture, and as a result of this pressure, concepts such as organic agriculture, regenerative agriculture, and sustainable agriculture were introduced to farmers around the world to decrease damage to natural resources and the environment. One of the major forces behind this trend was the European Union since 1991 when it introduced the concept of organic food for the first time.
Set of measures for sustainable agricultural development:
One of the most significant stages taken over the years is using integrated pest management (IPM), selective plant breeding, and agriculture in controlled environments.
Demand for bio-agricultural products, upgrading of traditional agriculture, rising transfer prices, climate change, increasing population in developing countries, and the growth of pollution are among the factors which threaten food security. Agriculture is one of the most dangerous occupations in the world and farmers are at high risk for respiratory, skin, and cancer.
Sustainable production to obtain food security is our major language to create a world free from poverty and hunger.
What is the impact of agricultural sector development on the country’s economic situation?
Agricultural products, including crops and livestock, so-called agricultural products, are significant in the initial place for the provision of the most basic human requirements, namely food. Besides, as the experience of some countries such as Australia and Canada indicates, the agricultural sector can be regarded as a starting point for economic development. Thus, the developed countries, by taking a major share of the production and trade of agricultural products (such as cereals) worldwide can gain economic and political dominance over other societies in addition to accessing a considerable currency each year.
In many other countries, where the majority of the population is active in the agricultural sector, large sums are allocated annually for the import of these products. Especially since the rate of population growth in recent societies is commonly higher than in other countries and therefore the food supply of a growing population is often regarded as a serious problem. In our country, the production of agricultural products and also the problem of population, especially in recent years was regarded. Therefore, consideration for this section should be continued. A look at some accessible statistics in this regard reveals some facts in this regard.